Chapter 15 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 815-816
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. A desktop or mobile application programmer/developer converts the system design into the appropriate computer language, such as Visual Basic, Java, C#, F#, and C11. (True)
  2. A systems analyst specifies, designs, implements, tests, and documents high-quality software in a variety of fields, including robotics, operating systems, animation, and applications. (False)
  3. A storage administrator/analyst installs, maintains, and upgrades storage systems and analyzes an organization’s storage needs. (True)
  4. An IT consultant typically is hired based on computer expertise and provides computer services to his or her clients. (True)
  5. The main difference between a CIS curriculum and an MIS curriculum is that the ratio of business courses to computer courses is greater in a CIS curriculum. (False)
  6. In general, a CS curriculum focuses on theory of programming and operating systems and typically emphasizes application programming instead of system programming. (False)
  7. At some company’s Web sites, job seekers can post a video resume, which enables them to showcase their skills and abilities. (True)
  8. Most certification programs do not require academic coursework. (True)
  9. Application software certification sometimes is called end-user certification. (True)
  10. The Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) certification tests technical expertise in one of several areas including managing and troubleshooting networks using Windows operating systems. (False)

Multiple Choice

  1. A. Chief technology officer (CTO)
  2. C. Data communications analyst/VoIP specialist
  3. C. Articulation agreement
  4. A. Computer information systems (CIS)
  5. D. Chapters throughout the United States, workshops, seminars, conventions, and special interest groups (SIGs)
  6. B. User groups and trade schools
  7. D. Certified Software Development Associate (CSDA)
  8. B. CCNA

Matching

  1. E-commerce director, e. supervises the development and execution of Internet or e-commerce systems
  2. Database analyst, d. uses data modeling techniques and tools to analyze, tune, and specify data usage within an application area
  3. Technical writer, j. works with the analyst, programmer, and user to create system documentation and user materials
  4. Technical lead, g. guides design, development, and maintenance tasks
  5. Database administrator, h. creates and maintains a data dictionary and monitors database performance
  6. Desktop publisher/ compositor, b. formats and combines text and graphics to produce publication-ready materials
  7. Quality assurance specialist, f. reviews programs and documentation to ensure they meet the organization’s standards
  8. Webmaster/Web administrator, i. maintains an organization’s Web site; creates or helps users create Web pages; oversees Web site performance
  9. Corporate trainer, a. teaches employees how to use software, design and develop systems, program, and perform other computer-related activities
  10. Chief security officer (CSO), c. responsible for physical security of an organization’s property and people

Short Answer

  1. What is an advantage of attending a trade school?
    The advantage is Time Savings, Trade schools teach specific skills instead of requiring students take a  broad range of courses in the sciences and humanities. For this reason, students often  complete trade school programs in a shorter time than college and university programs.
    What factors should you consider when selecting a trade school?
    We should consider that the trade school has an articulation agreement with a nearby college or university. An  articulation agreement ensures that if you transfer to a college or university, you will receive credit for most of the courses taken at your current school. When deciding on a trade school, we should also compare curricula, laboratory facilities, instructors, and the types of jobs the school’s graduates have obtained.
  2. What are the benefits of professional growth and continuing education?
    The benefits are getting the latest information about new products and services in the computer industry that would be distributed into society for example: equipment, hardware, software, and issues affecting the computer industry.
    What are some ways you can keep up to date about industry trends and technologies?
    Some ways are attending some activities such as workshop, seminars, conference, conventions, and trade shows. And keep up to date by regularly surfing the internet about computer industry.
  3. How should you go about choosing a certification?
    Firstly reflect on your career goals and interest, then asses your background knowledge and experience. Finally research certifications to find those that best match your needs.
    Describe four options for preparing for certification.
    * Self-study: Flexible self-study programs help professionals prepare for certification at their own pace and supplement other training methods.
    * Online training classes: Online training allows students to set their own pace in an interactive environment and combines the technological advantages of computer-based training with the connectivity of the Internet or a company’s intranet.
    * Instructor-led training: Instructor-led training is available in a variety of forms, including seminars, which typically are held for several days during a week; boot camps, which immerse students in intensive course work for up to two weeks; and academic style classes, which span a period of several weeks or months.
    * Web resources: The certification sponsor’s Web site generally contains descriptions of the available certifications, with FAQs and links to authorized training and testing centers. Many include detailed course objectives, training guides, sample test questions, chat rooms, and discussion groups.
  4. What is the focus of programmer/developer certification, and what other types of certification are beneficial to those interested in programmer/developer certification?
    The focus of the certification is to ensure the programmers/developers are competent enough as a programmer/developer. Other types of certification that are also beneficial are Networking and Web design certification.
    – Who might be interested in programmer/developer certification?
    Java programmers, Mobile application developers, Oracle database managers, Programming consultants, SQL programmers, Web software developers, XML developers.
  5. – Describe hardware certification.
    Hardware certifications vary in scope from a narrow focus with an emphasis on the repair of a specific device to an integrated hardware solution that addresses a company’s current and future computing needs. Obtaining an advanced certification in hardware implies that you have achieved a standard of competence in assessing a company’s hardware needs, and you can implement solutions to help the company achieve its computing goals.
    – Who might be interested in hardware certification?
    Cable installation technicians, Computer repair technicians, Corporate trainers, Help desk specialists, IT consultants, System engineers and administrators.

Application software certification sometimes is called end-user certification.

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Chapter 14 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 763-764
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. The activities relating to running the business are called supporting activities. (True)
  2. Business process management rarely is aided by specialized software designed to assist in these activities. (False)
  3. An information system is a set of programs and procedures that work together to produce information. (False)
  4. Customer relationship management software tracks leads and inquiries from customers, stores a history of all correspondence and sales to a customer, and allows for tracking of outstanding issues with customers. (True)
  5. A data center is a collection of links, content, and services presented on a Web page and designed to guide users to information they likely are to find interesting for their particular job function. (False)
  6. Most of the hardware and software that contains technologies, such as data warehouses, electronic data interchange, extranets, Web services, document management systems, workflow, and virtual private networks is located in a portal. (False)
  7. In a service-oriented architecture (SOA), information systems provide services to other information systems in a well-defined manner over a network. (True)
  8. An optical disc jukebox holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data. (True)
  9. Blade servers pack a complete computer server on a single card rather than a system unit. (True)
  10. Information systems that have interoperability and easily share information with other information systems are said to be open. (True)

Multiple Choice

  1. C. SMBs
  2. B. Reduces costs of maintenance and increases
  3. A. Business intelligence
  4. B. Quality control software
  5. A. VPN tunnel
  6. D. Legacy system
  7. A. Fibre Channel
  8. D. Selective backup

Matching

  1. Core activities, h. business activities that relate to the main mission of a company
  2. Quality control system, f. helps an organization maintain or improve the quality of its products or services
  3. Decision support system, b. helps users analyze data and make decisions
  4. Expert system, e. captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making
  5. EDI, d. a set of standards that controls the transfer of business data and information
    among computers both within and among enterprises
  6. Extranet, g. portion of a company’s network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise’s intranet
  7. Workflow, a. process that identifies the specific set of steps involved in completing a project
  8. RAID, j. a group of two or more integrated hard disks
  9. Scalability, i. measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow to meet increasing performance demands
  10. Failover, c. process of one system automatically taking the place of a failed system

Short Answer

  1. What are the responsibilities of managers?
    There are many specific duties that will vary widely depending on what type of activity the manager is responsible for. But in general terms, managers are usually responsible to ensure that the people assigned to them are doing their tasks correctly. The definition of “correctly” is where there is a good degree of variation from job to job, but it usually involves managing a budget for the people assigned to the manager, ensuring that the tasks of those people are completed on whatever schedule has been established, working through personnel issues like training if necessary, salary issues, bad performance, etc.
    – What four activities do managers perform to coordinate resources?
    Four activities managers perform to coordinate resources are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
  2. – What is a content management system (CMS)?
    A content management system (CMS) is an information system that is a combination of databases, software, and procedures that organizes and allows access to various forms of documents and other files, including images and multimedia content.
    – What type of content may be processed by a content management system?
    They are based on the user’s actions, the content management system processes content, categorizes the content, indexes the content so that it later can be searched, and stores the content.
  3. – Describe two types of virtualization.
    * Server virtualization provides the capability to divide a physical server logically into many virtual servers.
    * Storage virtualization provides the capability to create a single logical storage device from many physical storage devices.
    – What are cloud and grid computing, and why do companies use them?
    Grid computing is where more than one computer coordinates to solve a problem together. Often used for problems involving a lot of number crunching, which can be easily parallelisable.
    Cloud computing is where an application doesn’t access resources it requires directly, rather it accesses them through something like a service. So instead of talking to a specific hard drive for storage, and a specific CPU for computation, etc. it talks to some service that provides these resources. The service then maps any requests for resources to its physical resources, in order to provide for the application. Usually the service has access to a large amount of physical resources, and can dynamically allocate them as they are needed.
    As the demand for computing resources increases, companies may find that using outside computing resources is more economical than building new computing capacity internally. Cloud and grid com puting are two new technologies that provide flexible and massive online computing power.
  4. – What are five types of e-commerce?
    Five types of e-commerce are Business to Business, Business to Consumer, Consumer to Business, Consumer to Consumer, and Mobile E-commerce
    – Describe three of the five types that you listed.
    * Business to Business
    Business to business, or B2B, e-commerce consists of online transactions between companies, with no involvement of either company’s retail consumers. For example, an automobile manufacturer that requires 50,000 lug nuts orders them through the vendor’s website. Both the automobile manufacturer and the lug nut manufacturer sell their products to individual consumers through other outlets, but the automobile manufacturer’s order excludes both companies’ retail consumers. B2B e-commerce reduces errors while enhancing efficiency.
    * Business to Consumer
    The type of e-commerce most easily recognized by most people, business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce consists of online transactions between consumers and online retailers or service providers. B2C typically operates in one of two ways. In one approach, the company operates a website where customers can buy the products or services directly from the company. The other model consists of a company maintaining a website that third-party companies use to sell products or services.
    * Consumer to Business
    A classic example of consumer to business (C2B) e-commerce is a person taking bids from different construction companies to build a home. The Internet opens the door for a much wider variety of C2B transactions. C2B e-commerce typically means that a person needs a professional to accomplish a task. The consumer posts a job description to a forum or website dedicated to C2B transactions, and solicits bids from businesses. After selecting a bidder, the consumer typically pays the business through an electronic medium. Websites that cater to C2B transactions frequently offer or require the consumer to use the site’s secure financial services.
  5. – What does a backup plan contain?
    The location of backup data, supplies, and equipment, The personnel responsible for gathering backup resources and transporting them to the alternate computer facility, and a schedule indicating the order in which, and approximate time by which, each application should be up and running.
    – What factors contribute to the success of a backup plan?
    For a backup plan to be successful, the organization must back up all critical resources. Also, additional people, including possibly nonemployees, must be trained in the backup and recovery procedures because organization personnel could be injured in a disaster.
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Chapter 13 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 703-704
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. Just as humans speak a variety of languages, programmers use a variety of programming languages and tools to create programs. (True)
  2. With a procedural language, often called a third-generation language (3GL), a programmer uses a series of English-like words to write instructions. (True)
  3. Programmers use Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) to create programs for smart phones and other mobile devices. (True)
  4. The Microsoft .NET Framework is a set of technologies that allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone computers and mobile devices. (True)
  5. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web. (True)
  6. ATOM allows Web developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers. (False)
  7. An applet usually runs slower than a script. (False)
  8. Ruby on Rails is an open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites. (True)
  9. Expression Web is used strictly on Linux Web servers. (False)
  10. A selection control structure shows one or more actions following each other in order. (False)

Multiple Choice

  1. B. Interpreter
  2. C. Event driven
  3. C. Java
  4. A. SQL
  5. A. VBScript
  6. C. SharePoint Designer
  7. D. Dreamweaver
  8. B. Encapsulation

Matching

  1. Java, g. object-oriented language that uses a just-in-time compiler
  2. C++, d. object-oriented extension of the C programming language
  3. F#, j. combines the benefits of an object-oriented language and a functional language
  4. 4GL, i. nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database
  5. Macro, c. series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task
  6. PHP, e. free, open source scripting language
  7. API, a. collection of tools that programmers use to interact with an environment such
    as a Web site or operating system
  8. Pretest, h. process of testing a condition at the beginning of a loop
  9. Posttest, b. process of testing a condition at the end of a loop
  10. Code review, f. process of programmers, quality control testers, and/or peers reviewing code in order to locate and fix errors so that the final programs work correctly

Short Answer

  1. – How is a compiler different from an interpreter?
    A compiler converts the entire program into executable code before running, when running the program only the executable version of the code is running. An interpreter converts the code during run time, it converts the code 1 line at a time at the time that it is running.
    – What is the advantage, and disadvantage, of an interpreter?
    The Advantages  are :
    * Interpreters are useful for program development when execution speed is not important. As the interpreter is in command of the execution process debugging features can be build in.
    * Debugging is easier since the interpreter stops when it encounters an error. If an error is deducted there is no need to re translate the whole program.
    * There is no lengthy “compile time”, i.e. you do not have to wait between writing a program and running it, for it to compile. As soon as you have written a program, you can run it.
    The Disadvantages if interpreter is Interpreters normally translate and execute programs line by line, converting each program statement into a sequence of machine code instructions and executing these instructions without retaining the translated version.
  2. – What is a major benefit of OOP?
    Major benefit of OOP is the ability to reuse and modify existing objects.
    – How is RAD (rapid application development) used for developing software?
    RAD (rapid application development) is a method of developing software, in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until the entire program is completed. Users begin working with sections of the program as they are completed.
  3. – What is included in an integrated development environment?
    An IDE (integrated development environment) includes tools for building graphical user interfaces, an editor for entering program code, a compiler and/or interpreter, and a debugger.
    – Describe the programming languages in the Visual Studio suite.
    * Visual Basic is a programming language that allows programmers easily to build complex task-oriented object-based pro grams.
    * Visual C++ is a programming language based on C++. Not only is Visual C++ a powerful object-oriented pro gramming language, it enables program mers to write Windows, Windows Mobile, and .NET applications quickly and effi ciently.
    * Visual C# is a programming language that combines programming elements of C++ with an easier, rapid development environment.
  4. – How is XML used?
    XML separates the Web page content from its format, allowing the Web browser to display the contents of a Web page in a form appropriate for the display device. For example, a smart phone, a PDA, and a notebook computer all could display the same XML page or use different formats or sections of the XML page.
    – Describe two applications of XML.
    * RSS Rich Site Summary is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format.
    * The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub or APP) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources.
  5. – Describe two activities performed by the programmer when documenting a solution.
    Review the program code and review all the documentation.
    – Why is proper documentation important?
    Proper documentation greatly reduces the amount of time a new programmer spends learning about existing programs.
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Chapter 12 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 653-654
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. An information system supports daily, short-term, and long-range activities of systems analysts. (True)
  2. A systems analyst is responsible for designing and developing an information system. (True)
  3. Operational feasibility measures whether an organization has the hardware, software, and people needed to support a proposed information system. (False)
  4. Documentation should be updated only after a project is complete. (False)
  5. In detailed analysis, the systems analysts develop the proposed solution with a specific hardware or software in mind. (False)
  6. Structured English is a style of writing that describes the steps in a process. (True)
  7. Object modeling combines the data with the processes that act on that data into a single unit, called a method. (False)
  8. The only major activity of the design phase is the development of all of the details of the new or modified information system. (False)
  9. Some VARs provide complete systems, known as a turnkey solution. (True)
  10. During program design, the systems analyst prepares the program specification package, which identifies the required programs and the relationship among each program, as well as the input, output, and database specifications. (True)
  11. With a pilot conversion, multiple locations in the organization use the new system. (False)

Multiple Choice

  1. A. Extreme project management
  2. B. PERT chart
  3. C.  Project request
  4. A. Mandated by management or some other governing body
  5. C. Decision table
  6. D. System proposal
  7. A. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
  8. D. Acceptance

Matching

  1. System developer, h. responsible for designing and developing an information system
  2. Project manager, d. shows how actors interact with an information system
  3. Request for system services, a. becomes the first item in the project notebook and triggers the planning phase
  4. Process modeling, b. analysis and design technique that describes processes that transform inputs into outputs
  5. Project dictionary, i. contains all the documentation and deliverables of a project
  6. Data dictionary, g. stores a name, description, and other details about each data item
  7. Object, c. working model of the proposed system
  8. Packaged software, j. mass-produced, copyrighted, prewritten software available for purchase
  9. Prototype, c. working model of the proposed system
  10. Performance monitoring, k. determines whether the system is inefficient or unstable at any point

Short Answer

  1. What is system development?
    System development is a process of creating or altering information systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. In software engineering, the SDLC concept underpins many kinds of software development methodologies.
    – Describe the five phases of the system development life cycle (SDLC).
    * Planning, Establishes a high-level view of the intended project and determines its goals.
    * Analysis, Refines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs.
    * Design, Describes desired features and operations in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code and other documentation.
    * Implementation, The real code is written here.
    * Operation, Support, and Security, perform maintenance activities, monitor system performance, assess system security.
  2. – What are four types of feasibility, and what does each measure?
    * Operational feasibility measures how well the proposed information system will work.
    * Schedule feasibility measures whether the established deadlines for the project are reasonable.
    * Technical feasibility measures whether the organization has or can obtain the hardware, software, and people needed to deliver and then support the proposed information system.
    * Economic feasibility, also called cost/benefit feasibility, measures whether the lifetime benefits of the proposed information system will be greater than its lifetime costs.
    – What are six techniques used to gather data and information?
    Six techniques used to gather data and information are Review Documentation, Observe, Survey, Interview, JAD Sessions – Joint-application design sessions, and Research.
  3. – How is UML used?
    Unified Modeling Language is used to specify, visualize, modify, construct and document the artifacts of an object-oriented software-intensive system under development.
    – How is a use case diagram different from a class diagram?
    Difference of use case diagram and class diagram are that an use case diagram graphically shows how actors interact with the information system. An actor is a user or other entity such as a program.  A class diagram graphically shows classes and subclasses in a system. On a class diagram, objects are grouped into classes.
  4. – What are the three major activities of the operation, support, and security phase?
    The three major activities of the operation, support, and security phase are Perform maintenance activities, Monitor system performance, and Assess system security.
    – Describe each type of maintenance activity.
    * Corrective maintenance, which is the process of diagnosing and correcting errors in an information system.
    * Adaptive maintenance is the process of including new features or capabilities in an information system.
    * Performance monitoring is the process to determine whether the system is inefficient or unstable at any point.
    * Perfective maintenance is the process to investigate solutions to make the information system more efficient and reliable.
  5. – What is a computer security plan?
    Security planning for IT may involve the development of security policies (ie, acceptable use, disaster recovery, breach notification), implementation of security controls (to include hardware, software, and personnel), risk assessment, cryptographic use and controls, and legal/ethical considerations.
    – What three things should a computer security plan do?
    * Identify all information assets of an organization, including hardware, software documentation, procedures, people, data, facilities, and
    supplies.
    * Identify all security risks that may cause an information asset loss. Rank risks from most likely to least likely to occur.
    * For each risk, identify the safeguards that exist to detect, prevent, and recover from a loss.
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Chapter 11 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 597-598
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. Not all breaches to computer security are planned. (False)
  2. The term, cyberwarfare, describes an attack whose goal ranges from disabling a government’s computer network to crippling a country. (True)
  3. Many methods exist to guarantee completely a computer or network is safe from computer viruses and other malware. (False)
  4. Cybercriminals install malicious bots on unprotected computers to create a zombie army. (True)
  5. A honeypot is a computer that is isolated and, therefore, immune to attack. (False)
  6. Biometric payment involves a customer’s fingerprint being read by a fingerprint reader that is linked to a payment method such as a checking account or credit card. (True)
  7. Some businesses use a real time location system (RTLS) to track and identify the location of high-risk or high-value items. (True)
  8. A program called a keygen, short for key generator, creates software registration numbers and sometimes activation codes. (True)
  9. With public key encryption, both the originator and the recipient use the same secret key to encrypt and decrypt the data. (False)
  10. A digitial signature is a mathematical formula that generates a code from the contents of the message. (False)
  11. Digital rights management (DRM) is a strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of movies, music, and other digital content. (True)
  12. Green computing involves reducing the electricity while using a computer, but the practice increases environmental waste. (False)

Multiple Choice

  1. B. Rootkit
  2. D. Worms, rootkits, back doors
  3. A. Denial of service attack
  4. C. Digital forensics
  5. C. Hardware theft
  6. D. Encryption key
  7. D. Power usage effectiveness (PUE)
  8. C. Social engineering

Matching

  1. Virus, j. potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission
  2. Trusted source, d. organization or person you believe will not send a virus infected file knowingly
  3. Quarantine, e. area of the hard disk that holds an infected file until the infection can be removed
  4. Botnet, g. group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that is being used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for nefarious purposes
  5. Spoofing, i. technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network
  6. Personal firewall, c. protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions
  7. Passphrase, b. private combination of words, often containing mixed capitalization and punctuation, associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources
  8. Encryption algorithm, a. set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext
  9. Biometric device, h. translates a personal characteristic into digital code
  10. Surge protector, f. uses special electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching the computer and other electronic equipment

Short Answer

  1. How do antivirus programs detect and identify a virus?
    There are two ways that an antivirus programs detect and identify a virus.
    First, it scans/monitors the programs by its code, if it found a program code that matches with the virus code in its signature database, it will consider that program a virus. Secondly, it scans/monitors the programs by analyzing its behavior, such as modification of critical system files/important data files, if any behavior seems suspicious, then the antivirus program will alert the user that there are suspicious behavior, or it may alert the user that malicious actions are about to be performed, and block that behavior.
    – What is a virus hoax?
    Virus hoax is an e-mail message that warns users of a nonexistent virus or other malware.
  2. Describe the ENERGY STAR program.
    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the ENERGY STAR program to help reduce the amount of electricity used by computers and related devices. This program encourages manufacturers to create energy- efficient devices that require little power when they are not in use. For example, many devices switch to sleep or power save mode after a specified number of inactive minutes or hours. Computers and devices that meet the ENERGY STAR guidelines display an ENERGY STAR label.
    – How should users handle obsolete computers?
    Users should not store obsolete computers and devices in their basement, storage room, attic, warehouse, or any other location. Computers, monitors, and other equipment contain toxic materials and potentially dangerous elements including lead, mercury, and flame retardants. In a landfill, these materials release into the environment. Recycling and refurbishing old equipment are much safer alternatives for the environment. Manufacturers can use the millions of pounds of recycled raw materials to make products such as outdoor furniture and automotive parts.
  3. What is information privacy?
    The right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them.
    List five ways to safeguard your personal information.
    Five ways to safeguard your personal information :
    * Do not reply to spam for any reason.
    * Limit the amount of information you provide to Web sites. Fill in only required information.
    * Purchase goods with cash, rather than credit or checks.
    * Clear your history file when you are finished browsing.
    * Fill in only necessary information on rebate, warranty, and registration forms.
  4. What are two methods for avoiding phishing attacks?
    Install a phishing filter and never click a link in an e-mail message; instead, retype the Web address in your browser.
    – How does clickjacking work?
    With clickjacking, an object that can be clicked on a Web site, such as a button, image, or link, contains a malicious program. When a user clicks the disguised object, a variety of nefarious events may occur. For example, the user may be redirected to a phony Web site that requests personal information, or a virus may download to the computer.
  5. Who uses content filtering and why?
    Many businesses use content filtering to limit employees’ Web access. These businesses argue that employees are unproductive when visiting inappropriate or objectionable Web sites. Some schools, libraries, and parents use content filtering to restrict access to minors.
    – Describe a rating system used for content filtering.
    One approach to content filtering is through a rating system of the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA), which is similar to those used for movies and videos. Major Web sites such as Yahoo!, AOL, and MSN use the rating system established by the ICRA. If content at the Web site goes beyond the rating limits set in the Web browser software, a user cannot access the Web site. Concerned parents can set the rating limits and prevent these limits from being changed by using a password.
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Chapter 10 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 545-546
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. Data is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video. (True)
  2. A database management system allows users to create forms and reports from the data in the database. (True)
  3. A range check ensures users enter only numeric data in a field. (False)
  4. A check digit often confirms the accuracy of a primary key value. (True)
  5. Databases require less memory, storage, and processing power than a file processing system. (False)
  6. A report is a window on the screen that provides areas for entering or modifying data in a database. (False)
  7. Continuous backup is a backup plan in which all data is backed up whenever a change is made. (True)
  8. A relationship is a link within the data in a database. (True)
  9. Normalization is a process designed to ensure the data within the relations (tables) is duplicated so that it is not lost. (False)
  10. The data in a distributed database exists in many separate locations throughout a network or the Internet. (True)

Multiple Choice

  1. B. Timely
  2. A. Composite key
  3. D. File maintenance
  4. B. Determines whether a number is within a specified range
  5. A. Less complexity
  6. B. Data dictionary
  7. B. Principle of least privilege
  8. A. Decides on the proper placement of field

Matching

  1. Field name, e. uniquely identifies each field
  2. Field size, g. defines the maximum number of characters a field can contain
  3. Data type, c. specifies the kind of data a field can contain and how the field is used
  4. Primary key, b. field that uniquely identifies each record in a file
  5. Query language, j. consists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print, or store
  6. Log, a. listing of activities that modify the contents of a database
  7. Recovery utility, i. uses the logs and/or backups to restore a database when it becomes
    damaged or destroyed
  8. GIS, d. database that stores maps and other geographic data
  9. Data modeler, h. person who focuses on the meaning and usage of data
  10. Database administrator, f. creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of the database, monitors the performance of the database, and checks backup and recovery procedures

Short Answer

  1. – What is validation?
    Validation is the process of comparing data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct.
    What are five types of validity checks?
    Five types of validity checks are alphabetic checks, numeric checks, range checks, consistency checks, and completeness checks.
  2. Why is data redundancy a weakness of file processing systems?
    Data redundancy a weakness of file processing systems because data redundancy means same information is duplicated in several files. This makes data redundancy.
    – Why is isolated data a weakness of file processing systems?
    Isolated data a weakness of file processing systems because data are scattered in various files, and the files may be in different format, writing new application program to retrieve data is difficult
  3. What is the database approach?
    Database approach is a approach whereby a pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs; offers significant advantages over traditional file-based approach
    – Describe five strengths of the database approach.
    Reduced Data Redundancy — Most data items are stored in only one file, which greatly reduces duplicate data. Improved Data Integrity — When users modify data in the database, they make changes to one file instead of multiple files. Shared Data — The data in a database environment belongs to and is shared, usually over a network, by the entire organization. Easier Access — The database approach allows nontechnical users to access and maintain data, providing they have the necessary privileges. Reduced Development Time — It often is easier and faster to develop programs that use the database approach.
  4. Describe how you might use a Simple Query Wizard.
    I might use a Simple Query Wizard for a query that searches for and lists students in an unversity.
    – What is query by example?
    Query by Example (QBE) is a database query language that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data.
  5. What are the advantages of object-oriented databases?
    Object-oriented databases have several advantages : they can store more types of data, access this data faster, and allow programmers to reuse objects.
    – Describe four examples of object-oriented databases.
    A multimedia database stores images, audio clips, and/or video clips. A groupware database stores documents such as schedules, calendars, manuals, memos, and reports. A computer-aided design (CAD) database stores data about engineering, architectural, and scientific designs. A hypertext database contains text links to other types of documents.
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Chapter 9 Solution

Discovering Computer 2011 – Living in a Digital World
Page 503-504
Lecturer : Tri Djoko Wahjono

True/False

  1. A communications channel is the media on which data, instructions, or information  travel. (True)
  2. With video messaging, users can send short video clips, usually about 15 minutes, in addition to all picture messaging services. (False)
  3. A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media. (True)
  4. A local area network (LAN) is a network that covers a large geographic area using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and radio waves. (False)
  5. A Web server is a computer that delivers requested Web pages to your computer. (True)
  6. An intranet is an internal network that uses Internet technologies. (True)
  7. The 40-Gigabit Ethernet standard is the fastest of the Ethernet standards. (False)
  8. Bluetooth does not require line-of-sight transmission. (True)
  9. At distances of 10 meters (about 33 feet), the data transfer rate for UWB devices is 480 Mbps. (False)
  10. Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) uses fiber-optic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internet access to a user’s physical permanent location. (True)
  11. Latency is the time it takes a signal to travel from one location to another on a network. (True)

Multiple Choice

  1. C. Visual voice mail
  2. C. A Web conference
  3. C. Provides for storage and management of a company’s documents
  4. D. Mashup
  5. B. Hubs and switches
  6. A. RFID
  7. D. Coaxial cable
  8. B. Mobile TV

Matching

  1. Picture messaging, e. allows users to send pictures and sound files, as well as short text messages, to a phone or other mobile device, or a computer
  2. Groupware, j. software that helps groups of people share information over a network
  3. Extranet, h. allows customers or suppliers to access part of a company’s intranet
  4. IrDA, d. specification to transmit data wirelessly among computers and devices via infrared light waves
  5. ATM, f. service that carries voice, data, video, and multimedia at very high speeds
  6. Dial-up modem, a. communications device that can convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals to digital signals, so that data can travel along an analog telephone line
  7. Digital modem, g. communications device that sends and receives data and information to and from a digital line
  8. Bandwidth, b. amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a
    communications channel
  9. Transmission media, c. materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals
  10. Noise, i. electrical disturbance that can degrade communications

Short Answer

  1. What is text messaging?
    Text messaging is a process where users sends and receives short text messages, typically fewer than 300 characters, on a phone or other mobile device or computer.
    – What are some options for sending and receiving text messages?
    Mobile to Mobile: send a message from your mobile device to another mobile device. Mobile to E-Mail: send a message from your mobile device to an e-mail address anywhere in the world. Web to Mobile: send a message from a text messaging Web site to a mobile device, or request that a Web site alert a mobile device with messages of breaking news and other updates, such as sports scores, stock prices, and weather forecasts. Mobile to Provider: send a message by entering a common short code (CSC), which is a four- or five-digit number assigned to a specific content or wireless service provider, followed by the message, such as a vote for a television program contestant or an entry for a sweepstakes.
  2. Describe how the global positioning system (GPS) works.
    GPS satellites orbit Earth. Every thousandth of a second, each satellite sends a signal that indicates its current position to the GPS receiver. GPS receiver (such as in a car, a wearable device, a smart phone, a handheld device, or a collar) determines its location on Earth by analyzing at least 3 separate satellite signals from the 24 satellites in orbit.
    – How do individuals use GPS technology?
    Individuals use GPS technology by using smart phones or GPS receiver.
  3. How are a local area network (LAN), a metropolitan area network (MAN), and a wide area network (WAN) different?
    A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a high-speed network that connects local area networks in a metropolitan area such as a city or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across that region. A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a large geographic area (such as a city, country, or the world) using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and radio waves.
    – What is a wireless LAN?
    A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a LAN that uses no physical wires.
  4. What is a network topology?
    A network topology refers to the layout of the computers and devices in a communications network.
    – What are the five types of digital dedicated lines?
    Five types of digital dedicated lines are ISDN lines, DSL, FTTP, T-carrier lines, and ATM.
  5. What are three different types of digital modems?
    Three types of digital modems are ISDN modems, DSL modems, and cable modems.
    – How does each one function?
    An ISDN modem sends digital data and information from a computer to an ISDN line and receives digital data and information from an ISDN line. A DSL modem sends digital data and information from a computer to a DSL line and receives digital data and information from a DSL line. A cable modem, sometimes called a broadband modem, is a digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network.
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